A complete hydraulic system consists of five parts, namely power components, executive components, control components, auxiliary components (accessories) and hydraulic oil.
1. The function of the power element is to convert the mechanical energy of the prime mover into the pressure energy of the liquid, which refers to the oil pump in the hydraulic system, which provides power to the entire hydraulic system. The structure of hydraulic pumps generally includes gear pumps, vane pumps, plunger pumps and screw pumps.
2 The function of the actuators (such as hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors) is to convert the pressure energy of the liquid into mechanical energy, and the hydraulic drive load performs linear reciprocating or rotary motion.
3. The control components (ie various hydraulic valves) control and regulate the pressure, flow and direction of the liquid in the hydraulic system. According to different control functions, hydraulic valves can be divided into pressure control valves, flow control valves and directional control valves. Pressure control valves include relief valves (safety valves), pressure reducing valves, sequence valves, pressure relays, etc.; flow control valves include throttle valves, regulating valves, and diverting and collecting valves, etc.; directional control valves include check valves, hydraulic controls, etc. Check valve, shuttle valve, reversing valve, etc. According to different control methods, hydraulic valves can be divided into on-off control valves, fixed value control valves and proportional control valves.
3. Auxiliary components include fuel tanks, oil filters, coolers, heaters, accumulators, oil pipes and pipe joints, sealing rings, quick-change joints, high-pressure ball valves, hose assemblies, pressure measuring joints, pressure gauges, oil level gauges , Oil thermometer, etc.
4. Hydraulic oil is the working medium that transfers energy in the hydraulic system. There are various types of mineral oil, emulsion and synthetic hydraulic oil.